Recovery models are well established in policy, commissioning and treatment practice in the UK, but have only begun to emerge in policy discourse in the Netherlands and Belgium. The aim of this project is to map pathways to recovery in populations engaging with different mechanisms of behaviour change for recovery - mutual aid, peer-based support, residential and community treatment, specialist treatment: maintenance and abstinence oriented) or through their own 'natural recovery' endeavours, at different stages of their addiction careers. We will recruit populations in early (<1 year), sustained (1-5 years) and stable recovery (>5 years) in these 3 countries and will track these individuals over the course of one year. The study will use a mixed methods design to assess recovery capital, social networks and identity, community engagement and societal responses, with a particular focus on gender differences in pathways and trajectories to change. We will also assess the client experience of policy and practice change on stigma, access to support and reintegration.