The Second World War threatened the archaeological and cultural heritage of the countries involved in military operations. Bombing and ground operations in Sicily affected archaeological sites and museums. The EU-funded SICILYWAR project will reconstruct and study the acts and conflict between different factors: military forces, national authorities, archaeologists and local communities. It will study the way the authorities treated archaeological discoveries that emerged in military constructions; the interrelations between authorities, scientists and local communities; the comparison of the role Sicilian archaeology played in the protection of cultural heritage with other similar European contexts (in Belgium, France, UK, et al). The research will benefit a variety of scholars, including archaeologists, historians, art historians and social studies experts.