Atmospheric composition change is a main driver of present and near-future climate change with airborne particles (AP) playing a major role therein. The impact of mineral AP as a major source of micronutrients (e.g. Fe) in the so-called "High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll" oceanic zones (like the Southern Ocean) that affects the global CO2 cycling, illustrates the close and complex relationships between the composition of atmospheric particles and global climate. In addition, atmospheric particles interact via scattering and absorption with radiation and have an impact on the energy balance in the atmospheric and at the surface. They also act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei and therefore play a crucial role in the formation of clouds, affecting both their radiative properties and precipitation.