Educational systems increasingly expect schools and teachers to take responsibility regarding the development of their pupils' ICT competences. As such, the identification of teacher and school characteristics that support or hamper the learning of pupils' ICT competences becomes an important question in the research on ICT integration. A first research objective (RO1) of this project is to empirically test and validate the multidimensional structure of a performance-based ICT competence scale. We elaborate on previous research by developing an ICT competence scale that is not based on self-reported measurement and does not assume an ICT competence to be a unidimensional construct. A second research objective focuses on the development and validation of refined measures of behavioral teacher and school characteristics that might be related to primary school pupils’ICT competences (RO2). Further, we investigate the relationship between pupils’ICT competence scores and behavioral teacher and school characteristics (RO3). We expand on previous studies by investigating behavioral teacher and school chracteristics next to the traditionally used background and structural teacher and school characteristics. Finally, we study how behavioral teacher and school characteristics relate to achievement gains in pupils’ICT competences (RO4). This will be one of the first studies that addresses the added value of teachers and schools for the development of pupils' ICT competences.