In this study we will go deeper into cultural education and cultural participation of the little ones (0 to 6 years). The choice for a study that specifically targets this age group is the result of the growing interest in the cultural participation and learning of this group. At the same time, the choice was motivated by the fact that although the practical and policy attention for cultural education and participation among the smallest ones increases, scientific knowledge on this subject remains highly atomised. A current and coherent overview of national and international scientific research on this theme is missing today. However, such a synthesis is very important because it can bring together existing insights from different scientific disciplines (pedagogy, sociology, psychology, cognition and neuroscience, art sciences, ...) and can demonstrate which claims are empirically or theoretically substantiated and which are not. This can help to design and direct measures and choices in policy and practice. It can therefore make policy choices more information-based.