Due to climate change, plants are exposed to greater variation in environmental conditions, and this has an impact on their performance. Therefore, we need breeding strategies that deliver resilience to extreme weather events and environmental conditions. But, at the moment, we lack in depth knowledge on the genetic, molecular/biochemical and physiological basis for temperature response and tolerance, especially in cereal grasses. In this project, we will collect scientific knowledge regarding temperature stress and wheat (growth and physiology) and we will explore the underlying signalling mechanisms that control growth and fertility at low and high temperature in wheat. To achieve this, we will perform differential proteome and phosphoproteome analyses of wheat seedlings and ears exposed to low and high temperature and functionally characterize a subset of candidate proteins. Subsequently, we will use the data to develop temperature-associated wheat research tools and markers for breeding.