Reformers and policymakers have since long travelled the world to learn from the successes and failures of others. This also includes penal policy. Within political science and public policy analysis such processes have been studied extensively under the heading of ‘policy transfer’, that is, ‘…the process by which knowledge of policies, administrative arrangements, institutions and ideas in one political system (past or present) is used in the development of policies, administrative arrangements, institutions and ideas in another political system’ (Dolowitz 2000: 3). In recent years policy transfer also received some attention in criminology but it remains, for the moment, rather underdeveloped, in particular with respect to policy transfer to continental Europe. The objectives of this project are therefore twofold. On the one hand, we will conduct an empirical study into three cases (i.e., electronic monitoring and private prisons; restorative justice; and prisoners’ rights) situated within a continental European context (Belgium). On the other hand, the project aims to contribute to theory transfer and elaboration by incorporating the latest discussions on policy transfer into mainstream criminology and by participating in the theoretical discussions within political science and public policy analysis on the basis of the findings coming from our research project.