This research theme clusters research that focuses on contemporary understandings of cultural literacy, specifically in the context of increasingly plural and media-saturated societies. In this research line questions are addressed about the current content of cultural literacy (i.e. what is considered to be relevant knowledge about culture and the arts?), about the potential functions of culture and the arts for society (i.e. what is considered to be the societal and educational value of knowledge about and engagement with culture and the arts?) and about the specific role of cultural institutions (i.e. how do cultural institutions address their changing roles as traditional mediators of knowledge about culture and the arts?). Rhetoric has become an important focus within this research strand, both from a programmatic perspective (how can rhetoric be introduced in educational settings) as well as from a methodological perspective (how can rhetorical analysis be introduced in educational research). There is also a focus on introducing fictional narratives in a broad range of educational settings and contexts.